The original AK was also known as the AK-47. It was a gas-operated, selective-fire weapon. Like all 7.62-mm Kalashnikov assault rifles, it fired the Soviet 7.62 x 39-mm M1943 round and used a standard 30-round curved box magazine. The AK came in two versions: one with a fixed wooden stock, and another, the AKS, with a folding metal stock issued primarily to parachutist and armor troops. Except for the differences in the stock and the lack of a tool kit with the AKS, the two version were identical. The early AKs had no bayonet, but the version with the fixed wooden stock later mounted a detachable knife bayonet.
The improved model, known as the AKM, is easier to produce and operate. It weighs about one kilogram less than the AK. The reduced weight results from using thinner, stamped sheetmetal parts rather than machined, forged steel; laminated wood rather than solid wood in the handguard, forearm, pistol grip, and buttstock; and new lightweight aluminum and plastic magazines. Other improvements include a straighter stock for better control; an improved gas cylinder; a rate-of-fire control alongside the trigger; a rear sight graduated to 1,000 meters rather than 800 meters; and a greatly improved, detachable bayonet.
The AKM also has a folding-stock version, designated AKMS, intended for use by riflemen in armored infantry combat vechicles such as the BMP. Except for its T-shaped, stamped-metal, folding buttstock, the AKMS is identical to the AKM. The folding-stock model can reduce its length from 868 to 699 millimeters.
All 7.62-mm Kalashnikov assault rifles fire in either semiautomatic or automatic mode and have an effective range of about 300 meters. At full cyclic rate, they can fire about 600 rounds per minute (upto 640 rounds per minute for the AKM), with a practical rate of about 100 rounds per minute fully automatic or 40 rounds per minute semiautomatic. Both the AK and AKM can mount a grenade launcher. Both can have passive image intensifier night sights. Both can function normally after total immersion in mud and water. The fully chromed barrel ensures effective operation even at very low temperatures. The muzzle of either weapon fits into the swiveling firing points of the BMP. Thus, the infantryman can fire the weapon while the vechicle is moving.
The most serious drawback to the AK and AKM is the low muzzle velocity (710 meters per second) of the relatively heavy 7.62-mm round. This results in a looping trajectory that requires a clumsy adjustment for accuracy at ranges beyond 300 meters. The barrel overheats quickly when the weapon fires for extended periods, making the weapon hard to handle and occasionally causing a round to explode prematurely in the chamber. The exposed gas cylinder is easily dented, sometimes causing the weapon to malfunction.
Although they designed it in 1947 and thus referred to it as the AK-47, the Soviets actually adopted the AK in 1949. The AK entered service in 1951. It was the basic individual infantry weapon of the Soviet Army until the introduction of the AKM. The Soviets developed the AKM in 1959. It entered service in 1961. All 7.62-mm Kalashnikov assualt rifles are very dependable weapons. They produce a high volume of fire and are simple to maintain. However, the new 5.45-mm assault rife AK-74 is replacing the 7.62-mm weapons.
The AKMS is basically a version of the AKM intended for airborne troops. The AKMS is identical to the AKM except for the folding stock which results in a difference from the AKM in only weight and length. The mechanical design for the moving parts is identical. The data below is taken from the Janes entry for the AKM except the data for the weight and the for the length has been removed.
|Cartridge:||7.62 x 39 mm||Operation:||gas, selective fire|
|Locking:||rotating bolt||Feed:||30-round detachable box magazine|
|Barrel:||414 mm||Rifling:||4 grooves, rh|
|Sights:||fore, pillar; rear, U-notch||Muzzle velocity:||715 m/s|
|Rate of fire:||cyclic, 600 rds/min||Effective range:||300 m|
|This military manual was originally issued by the Soviet Ministry of Defense for the AKM assault rifle and its folding-stock twin, the AKMS. It covers the history, function, maintenance, assembly and disassembly, confirmation zero, penetration characteristics of various cartridges, trajectory and dispersion patterns, accessories and much more. 8 1/2 x 11, illustrations.|
- US Army Field Manual 100-2-3 (June, 1991)
- Jane’s Infantry Weapons 1995 – 1996
- Kalashnikov Arms by Military Parade
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